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American Association for Physician Leadership
American Association for Physician Leadership

Five Ways to Use Inclusion Behavior to Avoid Practice Management Headaches

by David F. Smith, PhD

February 8, 2019


Inclusion behavior is a leader behavior that can improve team effectiveness and process efficiency. This article describes that behavior and five ways it can be implemented to achieve greater organizational success.


Leadership research has determined that the one-on-one relationship between a team leader and each team member is critical to team success. Successful outcomes are associated with specific leadership behaviors. Leaders can exhibit five specific behaviors that positively affect the relationship between the leader and their team member. This relationship, leader–member exchange, is central to many leadership theories. Inclusion behavior is an important learnable behavior a leader can use to improve team effectiveness, leading to efficient processes.

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David F. Smith, PhD

Director of Research, Five Star Leadership, Oahu Adventures Foundation, Inc., 6960 Feldspar Place, Carlsbad, CA 92009, and author of How Successful Teams Work: What Science Says About Leadership and High-Performance Teamwork (Lioncrest Publishing, 2018); phone: 619-876-6343; e-mail: davidsmith@​

For over 45 years.

The American Association for Physician Leadership has helped physicians develop their leadership skills through education, career development, thought leadership and community building.

The American Association for Physician Leadership (AAPL) changed its name from the American College of Physician Executives (ACPE) in 2014. We may have changed our name, but we are the same organization that has been serving physician leaders since 1975.


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